Top 25 NLP Interview Questions and Answers in 2022

Top 25 NLP Interview Questions and Answers in 2022

Natural Language Processing facilitates the comprehension and analysis of natural languages by machines. NLP is a procedure that automates the extraction of information from data using machine learning algorithms. Learning NLP will assist you in obtaining a high-paying position, as various specialists utilize it. We have selected the top 25 NLP Interview Questions and Answers to assist you in preparing for future interviews. Once you have prepared for the following frequently asked questions, you can obtain the desired position.

1. What Is Your Understanding Of The Term NLP?

NLP is an area of computer science concerned with the communication between computers and humans. This method employs Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to develop automated software that can comprehend human spoken languages and extract usable information from audio data. First, NLP approaches enable computer systems to interpret and analyze data in natural languages. Then, machine learning methods build algorithms that can extract meaning from massive datasets in voice or text format. In other words, NLP is software that employs artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms. To comprehend natural languages or how humans read and write in a language and then extract the necessary information from such data.

2. What Are Some NLP Uses In The Real World?

  • Grammar Checking Apps: Applications that check spelling and grammar are examples of Natural Language Processing. NLP algorithms are mostly utilized by mobile applications and websites that enable users to repair grammar errors in text input. They also provide the best possible alternatives to words that the user may type. It is achievable due to the utilization of particular NLP models in the backend.
  • Google Translate: Google Translate is the most well-known Natural Language Processing program. This tool can translate your written or spoken statements into any language. Google Translate can also provide the correct pronunciation and meaning of a term. The Google Translate tool utilizes powerful Natural Language Processing algorithms to translate phrases into many languages.
  • Chatbot software: Chatbot applications deliver a superior customer service experience. Numerous websites and businesses use this to provide customer assistance through these virtual chatbots that resolve issues. Many businesses utilize chatbots to provide basic customer care 24 hours a day, seven days a week. In general, it filters out situations that do not necessitate engagement with the customer executives of the company. It gives the impression that the customer service team is responsive. If a chatbot cannot answer a user’s question, it forwards it to the support team while maintaining consumer engagement. Chatbots also enable businesses to cultivate satisfying relationships with customers. All of these are only made possible through Natural Language Processing.

3. What Is The Naive Bayes Algorithm, And When Can It Be Used In NLP?

The Naive Bayes algorithm is a collection of classifiers based on Bayes’ theorem. This series of NLP models constitute a family of algorithms we apply to various classification tasks, such as sentiment prediction, spam filtering, document classification, and more. The Naive Bayes algorithm converges more quickly and requires fewer training samples. As a result, training the Naive Bayes model requires less time than other discriminative models, such as logistic regression. This approach is ideal when working with several classes and text categorization when the data is dynamic and often changing.

4. What Does Dependency Parsing Entail In Natural Language Processing?

Dependency Parsing is a procedure in Natural Language Processing that assigns syntactic structure to a sentence and identifies its dependency parses. It is crucial for comprehending the relationships between “head” terms in the syntactic structure. Therefore, it is also referred to as syntactic parsing. The complexity of dependency parsing increases as the number of sentences with multiple dependencies parses increases. Multiple parse trees constitute an ambiguity. The primary objective of dependency parsing is to successfully assign a syntactic structure to a sentence by resolving these ambiguities. It is also utilized for semantic analysis in addition to syntactic structuring.

5. What Exactly Is NLTK? What Distinguishes It From Spacy?

Natural Language Toolkit, or NLTK, is a collection of libraries and tools for symbolic and statistical natural language processing. This toolkit contains some of the most potent libraries capable of working with various ML techniques to deconstruct and comprehend human language. For example, NLTK is employed for Lemmatization, Punctuation, Character count, Tokenization, and Stemmatization. Their differences include:

  • In contrast to NLTK’s library of programs, Spacey’s toolkit contains the optimal algorithm for a given situation.
  • NLTK offers a greater variety of languages than Spacey.
  • Spacey is an object-oriented library, whereas NLTK is a string processing library. In addition, Spacey supports word vectors, whereas NLTK does not.

6. What Is Summarization Of Text?

The text summary is the technique of condensing a lengthy text while preserving its content and effect. In text summarizing, the aim is to summarize any supplied text and outline the document’s important ideas. This approach has evolved in recent years and can successfully summarize large amounts of text. Moreover, text summarization has proven important because machines can quickly summarize massive amounts of text, a task that would otherwise be extremely time-consuming. Two methods of text summary that exist are extraction-based synthesis and synopsis based on abstraction.

7. List The Natural Language Processing Components.

The principal elements of NLP are as follows:

  • Entity extraction refers to retrieving information, such as place, person, organization, etc., from a sentence by segmentation. It facilitates the identification of a textual entity.
  • Syntactic analysis aids in determining the precise meaning of a document.
  • The techniques of pragmatic analysis are utilized to extract meaningful information from a text.
  • Morphological and lexical analysis: It aids in elucidating the structure of words through parsing analysis.

8. What Exactly Is The Term “Latent Semantic Indexing” (LSI)?

Latent semantic indexing is a mathematical technique used to enhance the precision of information retrieval. The architecture of LSI algorithms permits machines to discover the hidden (latent) link between semantics (words). Robots construct various notions associated with the words in a sentence to improve information comprehension. The approach used to comprehend information is known as singular value decomposition. Typically, it is employed to manage static and unstructured data. The matrix generated by singular value decomposition has columns for words and rows for documents. This strategy is ideal for identifying components and categorizing them by type. The core tenet of LSI is that words have similar meanings when used in similar contexts. Comparatively, computational LSI models are slower than other models. However, they have excellent contextual awareness, which aids in studying and comprehending a text or material.

9. What Exactly Is Involved In Syntactic Analysis?

Syntactic analysis is a technique used to derive meaning from sentences. A machine can examine and comprehend the order of words in a sentence via syntactic analysis. NLP uses the grammar rules of a language to aid in the syntactic analysis of the combination and order of words in documents. The following techniques are utilized for syntactic analysis:

  • First, it aids in determining the structure of a sentence or document’s text. It assists in analyzing the text depending on the language’s grammar.
  • The segmentation of words divides the text into discrete, meaningful units.
  • The goal of morphological segmentation is to reduce words to their root forms.
  • Stemming is the process of removing a word’s suffix to determine its base word.
  • Lemmatization is the process of combining words with suffixes without affecting their meaning.

10. What Is Your Understanding Of Tokenization As Used In Natural Language Processing?

In Natural Language Processing, tokenization is a technique for separating the text into its constituent tokens. These tokens represent the words in the same way a word builds a sentence. In NLP, computers process vast quantities of natural language data. These massive quantities of natural language data are condensed. Thus, tokenization is an essential step in natural language processing that divides the text into minimum units for further processing.

11. In NLP, What Is The Distinction Between Stemming And Lemmatization?

Natural language processing makes use of both stemming and Lemmatization to normalize text. Both are employed to prepare text, words, and documents for additional processing. Although they appear to be extremely similar, there are significant variances. Stemming is the process of eliminating affixes from a word to determine its root form. It generates morphological variations of a root or base word. Like stemming, Lemmatization is a more complex procedure that goes beyond word reduction. It considers a language’s entire lexicon and applies morphological analysis to terms. 

12. What Is NLP Feature Extraction?

Analyzing a text or document is facilitated by a word’s properties or attributes. They also help in the sentiment analysis of a text. The extraction of features is one of the approaches employed by recommendation systems. For example, a recommender system recognizes positive reviews such as “excellent,” “good,” and “wonderful” for a movie. The recommender system also attempts to identify textual characteristics that aid in describing the context of a given word or phrase. The words are then grouped or categorized according to their shared features. Now, whenever a new word is introduced, the algorithm classifies it according to the labels of these categories.

13. What Is The Meaning Of POS Tagging?

Parts of speech tagging are the full version of POS tagging. It is generally referred to as POS tagging. It defines a process for recognizing specific words in a document and classifying them according to their part of speech, given their context. POS tagging is also referred to as grammatical tagging since it requires comprehending grammatical structures and identifying each component. It is a fairly intricate process because the same word can have different grammatical functions depending on the context and sentence structure.

14. What Are The Various Parsing Techniques Employed In NLP?

Parsing is a strategy or approach for automatically assessing phrases based on their syntactic structure. The following is a list of the various parsing techniques used in Natural Language Processing:

  • Dependency parsing: It identifies a dependency parse of a sentence and assigns the sentence a syntactic structure. It focuses mostly on the link between various terms.
  • Separating meaning: Semantic parsing is a technique for translating natural language into a form a computer can comprehend and interpret.
  • Constituency dissection: It is a method in which phrases are broken down into constituent elements. Its primary function is to extract a constituent-based parse tree from the constituents of the sentences.
  • Light parsing is also known as chunking and light parsing. It identifies sentence parts and then associates them with distinct groupings of grammatical meanings.

15. What Stop Are Words Used In Natural Language Processing?

In Natural Language Processing, stop words are considered to be irrelevant information for a search engine. It contains numerous words, including articles, prepositions, was, were, is, am, the, a, an, how, and why. Natural Language Processing algorithms delete stop words to comprehend and assess the meaning of utterances. Eliminating stop words is one of search engines’ most significant data processing tasks. Software engineers construct search engine algorithms to disregard stop words and provide only relevant search results for a given query.

16. How Can Data For NLP Projects Be Obtained?

There are numerous methods for obtaining data for NLP projects. Among them are the following:

  • Using datasets available to the public: Datasets for NLP are accessible on websites such as Kaggle and Google Datasets.
  • In data augmentation, we can create different datasets from existing datasets.
  • Data extraction from the web: Using Python or other programming languages, one can scrape data from websites that are typically unavailable in an organized format.

17. What Steps Are Required To Address An NLP Problem?

These are the methods I take to resolve an NLP issue:

  • I initially obtained the text from the provided dataset in the first phase.
  • Then, I use stemming and lemmatization to the text to tidy it up.
  • I use feature engineering techniques to the received text as the third step.
  • I then incorporate using word2vec.
  • I train the constructed model using neural networks or other Machine Learning methods.
  • Now it is time to evaluate the performance of the model.
  • I then make the necessary modifications to the model.
  • I deploy the model after it has been completed.

18. How Are Conversational Agents Implemented?

Conversational Agents utilize the following NLP components:

  • Recognition and Synthesis of Speech: First, speech recognition converts speech impulses into phonemes transcribed into words.
  • Natural Language Understanding (NLU): In this stage, the text transcribed in the first stage is further analyzed using AI techniques by the natural language understanding system. Various NLP tasks, like Named Entity Recognition, Text Classification, Language Modeling, etc., come into play here.
  • Dialog Management: Once the necessary information is collected from text, we go on to determine the user’s purpose. The user’s response can then be classified using a predefined intent and a text classification system. It assists the conversational agent in determining what is being asked.
  • Based on the preceding processes, the agent generates an appropriate response based on a semantic understanding of the user’s purpose.

19. What Is The Definition Of Information Extraction? What Are The Various Information Extraction Models?

Information extraction in Natural Language Processing is autonomously extracting structured data from unstructured sources to obtain meaningful data. It extracts information such as entity properties and relationships between entities, among other things. Listed below are some information extraction models in Natural Language Processing: modules for fact extraction, entity extraction, sentiment analysis, and module relation extraction for tagger document classification.

20. Why Is The Technique Of Latent Semantic Indexing Used?

LSI, or Latent Semantic Indexing, is utilized in Natural Language Processing. This method is employed to enhance the precision of the information retrieval procedure. The LSI algorithm is meant to enable machines to find latent semantic correlations. As a result, machines produce diverse concepts to improve knowledge comprehension. The approach used to comprehend information is known as singular value decomposition. It is mostly used to manage unstructured and static data. It is one of the finest models for identifying and categorizing components according to their categories. Latent Semantic Indexing, or LSI, is founded on the premise that words have similar meanings when used in similar contexts. The computational LSI models are slower than other models. Still, they can increase the analysis and comprehension of a text or document.

21. What Is The Nlp Definition Of An N-Gram?

Text N-grams are utilized frequently in text mining and natural language processing. When computing n-grams, you typically advance one word at a time. They are a collection of co-occurring words within a certain frame (although you can move X words forward in more advanced scenarios).

22. What Exactly Does Tf-IDF Mean In Natural Language Processing?

TF-IDF, also known as Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency, is a method for determining the significance of a word relative to other terms in a corpus. TF-IDF translates words to vectors and adds semantic information, resulting in weighted uncommon words that we can utilize in numerous NLP applications.

23. Explain The Feature Engineering Idea.

We need a method to follow a range of pre-processing procedures and their applications. For example, to enter the pre-processed text into an NLP algorithm when we utilize ML techniques to complete our modeling step. Feature engineering refers to tactics that will help attain this objective. Feature extraction is an alternative term for this. The goal of feature engineering is to translate the properties of a text into a numeric vector that NLP systems can comprehend.

24. What Procedures Are Required For Preparing Data For NLP?

The following are typical pre-processing procedures utilized by NLP software:

  • Preliminaries: This comprises tokenization and segmentation of sentences.
  • Common Measures: Stop word removal, stemming and lemmatization, removal of numbers/punctuation, etc.
  • Code mixing, normalization, language identification, transliteration, etc., are examples of processing steps.
  • Superior Processing: Tags for Parts of Speech (POS)

25. What Are Some Examples Of Common NLP Tasks?

Among the most common NLP tasks are the following:

  • Machine translation facilitates the translation of a text from one language to another.
  • Text Summarization: Based on a vast corpus, this is used to provide a concise summary of the full document’s text.
  • Language Modeling: Using the history of past words to predict the structure of a subsequent sentence. Google’s auto-complete sentences tool is a nice illustration of this.
  • Topic Modeling: It assists in revealing the topical organization of a huge collection of papers. It denotes the real subject matter of the text.
  • Question Answering: This enables the automatic preparation of answers based on a corpus of text and an asked question.
  • Conversational Agents are typical voice assistants such as Alexa, Siri, Google Assistant, and Cortana.

Conclusion

Since its introduction, NLP’s popularity has increased. To pursue a career in this profession, you must be prepared to obtain the relevant credentials. To gain a position in this profession, you will be required to attend an interview where you will likely be asked the questions mentioned above.